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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  March 8, 2016 4:00am-6:01am EST

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table from the legislators and it is extraordinarily difficult to say no. over the years, and over the time, we had a steady increase since 1975 of mandatory sentence and enhance penalties and length of stay. and of misdemeanors becoming felonies. the effort that we have undertaken, and i'm hopeful that our work is to be done by august, is a 26-person committee, eight of which are legislators. the others are a diverse group of people, including me, that is talking about what makes sense to rewrite our entire criminal code. in a setting that focuses on evidence, research, the best practices like we have seen in south carolina and georgia just a minute ago. take a look at what makes sense and change laws to ensure that
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those people we afraid of because they will hurt someone or properly secured but program did not forgotten in those people that we are just mad at and don't have any other alternatives, we build alternatives in the community to deal with those folks. intervention in little. it has not been used as much, but we want to expand the opportunity. we want to give the judge an opportunity. forget about mandatory sentences. opposingnkly, we are almost all mandatory sentences. we have judges- to make decisions for let's not high their hands and say they have to send someone to prison. a person comes in and the judge says i want to be helped, or the judge convinces them and much like the drug courts we have talked about, or veterans courts or mental health courts, they
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enter into a program of diversion and they talk about with the judge what they need to do and they set specific times and goals and if they do it, one of the greatest things -- judges are great positive influences on people. if they know they are going to have to see the judge every couple of weeks or every month, and either time they do something good or bad, if they know that, they are more compliant. they understand the plan. if they complete the program, their felony conviction is erased. even know we need to ban the box universally, i think, that becomes a moot issue. we are proposing an extensive expansion of that. we used results that said all jurisdictions that increased theft levels saw no increase in that behavior.
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ohio as a $1000 threshold for felony theft. wink rosen increase -- we propose an increase to $2500. that is important because of this. folks, if people get into trouble and continue to need to be worked with, probation can continue, but it doesn't necessarily mean that it is a felony prison commitment. judicial discretion we talked about and priority one treatment. it is a controversial piece. we were an early adopter. was the greatest opportunity to make a positive difference. most of my years, i believe that completing a program had to be done inside a prison. i was a warden. if they did not have enough time to complete the program, you did not put them in it. our drug folks coming in after some real-time credit and a
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short sentence, we had thousands and thousands of people. we release 8400 people that do less than a year. those people were not being touched. those people had the highest rate of addiction and mental health because historically we were not smart enough to understand that we have got to get these folks started. medicaid expansion. we increase the number of people in addiction treatment by 50% inside of prisons. we have spent the money to have five regional contracts to continue drug treatment in a consistent way like they have done in treatment. the linchpin is our electronic health records. they sign a waiver in that person's treatment continues immediately. we are touching people now that we had given up on before.
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i was walking through the reception block at our free no prison, and i love the program. there is a harmony program. we are skiving songs the hospital in africa with children that are dying and they are singing. all of this stuff is so lifting. i walk into the reception block and see female inmates that look like my granddaughter. some cases, doing two or three months because of a six months sentence of jail time in getting a life sentence, literally. historically we have done nothing with those folks. we are now. in terms of this, and the federal systems have for a long time. in july 1, the legislature said i trust your recidivism rate of 27.5%. i trust the fact that if you looked at the national average, you would be returning 4300 more
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people to prison, but you want. 81 of the 88 counties have full functioning re-entry coalition. what we are going to do is this. we're going to say that there is a pocket of people, i think maybe 2100 people, that come into a highway. they are nonviolent folks. if you can get them ready for treatment, you can release them without a discussion from the judge. move them into a halfway house until they report it. we are starting what a treatment transit program. we are moving them to a different setting that is totally focused by themselves on treatment readiness, putting them through a minimum of 4-6 weeks of treatment readiness, and moving them out into the community even if they have a year sentence.
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that is good and i am proud of this. haveproud of the fact that immigration units were we expect inmates to work eight or 10 hours a day. we are working in animal shelters and food pantries and busing them back. they are out in the community all the time. we are so proud of that. i am proud of the recidivism rate. we have got to stop the mass incarceration and we have to use some logic about our sentencing. likeve to look at research what was done at the washington state policy center that take an adequate -- an analytical prison programs and what they deliver. community-based program are twice as effective at one third the cost of sending someone to prison. , you know, it say
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is an honor and privilege to be here, and it seems to me, and i'm not sure you would expect an old risen warden to say this, but it seems to me that judges should not be the primary referral of people to get treatment for their addiction or mental illness. when we have a rotator cuff issue, like i've got, we go to a doctor. the doctor refers us to a surgeon. the surgeon takes care of it. there is no stigma attached. think about your families. think about the people you talk about. is it clear to all of our thatnities in this country a parent knows they can take a child someplace and get treatment? and if they can, what kind of stigma is attached? we have to recognize that these darned drugs, in this current
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generation, are so strong and addictive that it is a different world. the old saying is just say no, right? that was are saying for a decade or more. it is awfully tough with this strain of drugs. with creative community support, and i could not agree more, we've got to -- think about this. my mission besides hopefully turning folks around and making their life's better, i want to get rid of my budget. i want to get rid of this $1.6 billion budget. i want to invest in people earlier in their lives. there were a lot of directional directors who wanted to focus on this. don't settle for tinkering. i was pounding on the podium. i said i am sick and tired of tinkering. it takes too long. we have got evidence out there to use. let's use it. it just takes too long.
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i know that my fellow correctional directors feel the same way. the unfortunate thing is i was telling the story earlier this morning. we have 20 state correctional directors that have less than 18 months in their job. it is very difficult for them to lead when they are just trying to find and figure out a way to manage that system. all of us have to be leaders and go out and tell a message that there is a better way, and we know that. we have seen that. evidence produced its. we have got enough caring people to really carry this out. let uset this gathering just feel good, like i did three weeks ago and at church. talent and insight of the people in this room, let's
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carry this message outside his walls. it's not the walls down -- let us not the walls down because people do not know the truth. when people know the truth, they change their minds. thank you. [applause] are there a remaining questions? if there are, i will try to stumble through them. -- we talkeddered about the state system. did you -- [inaudible] can you just touch on how this is flowing to the federal system
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, as much as you know, what is working, not working. mr. moore: i think we heard the question of the flow -- we have a great organization of the a state -- association of correctional administrators. we gather three or four times the year. we need that environment. the focus of those two or three days is to pass on best practices. i believe the issue of cityivism started in this at the end of 2011 at a asca meeting were 50 directors attended and i changed the mission to change recidivism and on those we touch. i think there is a consistent
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movement. that includes the federal bureau of prisons that are at the meetings. i think we are seeing a fuller of best or picture practices as we need. i have seen it. as we look at the attorney general's comments and public statements about restrictive housing, there is a lot of things consistent with restricting housing as there is with mass incarceration and treatment. i think you are seeing that everywhere. i think there is a groundswell. i cannot think of a single director in the united states of america that is not aligned with this philosophy from walking too many people of. we will do the best we can with those we have. we are. we will do our best. we will also, once we get our feet on the ground, need to be out, telling this story to the public. american civil
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liberties union in my office talking about restrictive housing and i have a great relationship with them and i said i am sick and tired of the old warden being publicized all the time about this mass incarceration thing. i need some help out there. and they certainly are willing to do that and i think we will see a ground movement. system, you going to see moving in the same direction, the same system, and do it a little different. if we do it different, we will learn even more. yes? >> i appreciated what you were saying about the six-month being more like a license for a lot of folks, but when i was prosecuting, a lot of dispositions were at the county level and they would involve detention at a county facility
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and not a state one. i wonder if the statistics you have been sharing take into account things at the county level as well. rateoore: the recidivism is not, but there is a major effort in medicaid sign-ups even in county jails and judges looking for opportunities to put people in community settings. we're seeing that more for the misdemeanor settings. -- the recidivism rate is not include locals. i have to leave. thank you very much. [applause] thank you very much, director moore. i would like to introduce our next panel. isding this panel
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rebecca vallas of the center of american progress and families, and she will be joined by graduates of affected communities and families to talk about their experience. just before we start, we are looking for attorney general sam owens. if he is here, please come backstage. ms. vallas: can you hear me, is my mic on? fantastic. my name is rebecca vallas. i am the managing director of the poverty to prosperity program. i'm incredibly honored to be part of this conversation. i think everyone in this audience is more familiar than they would like to be with certain statistics and figures.
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the united states has 5% of the world's population, but 25% of the world's prison population. i think we are familiar with 2.3 million americans being behind bars and we are probably more increasingly familiar with fact that one in three americans now has some type of criminal record. tot of why i am so excited be part of this conversation is while those statistics are incredibly important, they only tell part of the story. for us to really get a sense of what the impact of mass incarceration and over criminalization has been in this country, we need to talk to the people who are impacted by those policies. it is not just the individuals who have been sentenced to a crime. it is also their families and their communities.
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i am incredibly excited to introduce the panel that is going to be speaking today. before i do that, i wanted to note one striking, if staggering statistic that the center for american progress brought to light. in addition to the numbers i rattled off, it helps to shine a light on the impact on families and how we have reached a tipping point. that is that we are now at a point where nearly half of children in this country have a parent with a criminal record. i will let that settle in. about that as the legacy of our experiment with mass incarceration. i am pleased to introduce annemarie alward. secretary assistant of corrections at the washington department of corrections.
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she has been a leader at washington states when it comes to alternative scenting. we also bring into the conversation jerry garrison. he is from washington and he was incarcerated for a nonviolent offense that took him from his family and his daughter, .ennedy, join me in thanking this fantastic panel. [applause] annemarie, i want to start with you. tell us about the work you have been leading in washington state sentencing.s to 4 washingto -- washington state is -- ms. alward: at the same time, in
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2010, we had increasing populations and significant issues with money in state government. we have started looking at pathways to figure out different alternatives to lessen the prison population. we have 10% of our population in the community in lieu of carson ration -- lieu of incarceration. we looked at legislation we can use to have a judicial option, where a judge can sentence someone that meets the criteria of family to community prison,ion in the will or being able to look at folks with eligibility and release them up to a year early with supervision and with resources into the community and hopefully really try to impact those connections with family. we wanted to decrease the prison
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population and increase the amount of of efficiencies that we could work with in collaboration with other state government, particularly social services, by decreasing the number of redundant seas, the number of appointments that what family members at odds with each as to the number of classes they would have to comply with. by becoming more efficient and streamlined, we were really able to increase the efficiencies and alignment of other social agencies in the department of corrections. with that, the best way to really talk about it to talk to somebody like jared and kennedy, who have lived through the experience. while we started the program in washington state for family offender sentencing alternative, we begin in 2010. we had 450 completers through the program.
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it is a conservative, small program. jared is one of our happy participants in the family offender sentencing alternative. i don't know if you want to talk jared: i want to thank the aleph institute for having this special occasion today. i heard a lot of terms i was really familiar with when i was incarcerated. in the last year, i have not heard any of those terms at all. i don't have to deal with any of that no more because what i do every day is i just go to work and i'm successful. i got a house, i got my daughter living with me full-time. recidivism and all that stuff -- i'm never going to do it again. [applause] program, what i really think is key and i have talked to people about it, is the time leading up to applying if you program, you know
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have any infractions, minor or major, you're eliminated from the program. if you have, say, 100 people who know about the program that want to interview for it, think of the infractions you don't have to deal with because even if only two people are finally approved at the end of it, think of all the stuff you are not going to have to deal with prison wise. the fights, the tobacco. --t leading the two years the two years leading up to it, i did everything i did. i went to school, went to college and i graduated. i worked with a group where we built offices for the state agencies. all of those tools i put in my toolbox so when i left and out on the streets, it was normal to go back to work everyday which i do everyday. i get up at 5 a.m. six days a
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week. that is from all the tools i have learned from the program. >> kennedy, we would like to hear from you as well. what was it like being apart from your dad and what is it like to have him back in your life now? kennedy: it is kind of hard because not having a father figure at all. yeah. >> is it good to have him home? kennedy: education wise and reallya stable house is beneficial. it is really helpful and i think that is him getting up earlier is really helpful for that. >> we are glad to see him home with you. i'm glad to see you smiling. erad, do you want to talk a little bit how the program not just prepared you for release,
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but maybe some of the things you will people in this room will take away why it was so successful for you. program, i would works is you can be released up to a year. they would release you on house arrest to a house. you are still under supervision so you have to submit a schedule of where you are going to be. it was a really good safety blanket because a lot of people do their time in prison, get out and they are right back to what they were doing or want to go celebrate the release. for me, my transition was guaranteed to be a successful transition because of the program. i still have to check in every morning on the phone and i still see some buddy once a week. body once a week. it was a good time to get my ducks in a row so when i was done with them, i could transition to a normal life right away. there was no in between time, no i have to get a job. the ball was in motion.
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>> talk to us about the nuts and bolts. how does it work? >> i really want to emphasize in jerad's case, there is no community supervision for a number of nonviolent offenders. so, in the situation where a case comes through, the wonderful management and the program and the staff, when i take a look at it to look at those persons, many will have. supervision i supervision. i cannot imagine having to transition into a community without any assistance or safety net. through the family offender sentencing alternative, especially for those folks who are not going to have supervision period, they can have that safety net. i think that really did benefit the transition of jerad and
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many other people. what we look for is almost any offender, although we do have some limitations with some violent offenses that are not eligible. they'reply, interviewed, there is a multidisciplinary group that goes over -- we really teamed up with early child learning. a number of stakeholders, victim advocates that are very interested in what is best for the child. it is different for the department of corrections to be interested. it was a learning time for us. you look at a number of criteria and look at how stable the residence is and the support for the person. sometimes we will offer vouchers to transition somebody into a residence, especially for the first few months or the year. we will find them out in lieu of
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prison. it is home arrest. it is like a virtual work-release. >> can you talk more about some of the ways in which this program specifically supports the reunification of families? >> there is a number of ways. every family is different. some of the measures we have with the performance options for the correction officers doing the work with people like jerad and kennedy, they will have increased contacts with the family. they will do a lot of skill sets or skill teaching on parenting. there is an expectation that there be a 20 minute dinner, family dinner every night. there is an expectation that there is 20 minutes of reading everyday. when we talk to our legislative body and talk about one of the double checks correction officers will do -- i know kennedy is an avid reader --
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they will talk to the children in the house and what was your favorite book this week or they will look to see are their books by the bed so you know there is collateral contex t. i struggle being a parent sometime so especially when you are reentering a family again, having some people from the department of corrections and social services available with some resources really is helpful. >> kennedy, do you have a favorite book? kennedy: no. [laughter] >> too many to choose from. we want to leave time for questions because i'm sure it you have some things you want to ask. panelists. do we have any questions from the audience? if we do, go to one of the microphone. s. >> this question is directed to you, kennedy. us one minute,
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what the feeling was during the time your father was in prison. the difference in your life socially, school wise, professionally, family and friends. and how you felt yourself. kennedy: it was hard because the house i was in was not really stable. i wasount of school time, able to attend was not much. the friends i could make was really limited. was the most conversation i had was kennedy, why are you here? why are you late all the time? kennedy, why one, were you in the library during recess? >> added you feel when your dad came back into your life?
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kennedy: i don't really know how i felt. i just kind of sat there. you know how you can feel so many emotions at once that you don't know what the emotion is. it is like you put too many clips together. it is a bit brown. >> she is 11. an in betweener.twee kennedy: most are not really nice. yeah. >> we have a question over here. >> thank you for sharing. in particular, i wanted to go back to something that jerad shared about the incentive structure while you were bearcerated to ultimately
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able to participate in a program like this. what struck me was, i believe something you said about at the fellowry few of your community members while you were inside actually got to participate in the program. i wanted to hear a little bit more about capacity for something like this and especially expectation management for people who were hoping to have these opportunities, but will ultimately might not get to experience the reunification as quickly as you all did. jerad: if there was 100 people that applied for it -- i don't know the real statistics, but i know a lot of people when they hear about the program, they change their demeanor. like, yeah, i have to mind my p's and q's. i don't know how many people actually get approved. there is that hope, that glimmer of being home with your daughter.
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that will change for a lot of people. maybe it is more people that get approved. my case, i know the last two years with everything i did worked out in the long run. everything was a full circle whether it was getting up in the morning, going to work. the positive program of doing that with the expectations of hopefully being approved. >> i will add to that because we do have the capacity -- we know the numbers for the targeted capacity so when we blend the judicial brand, we have other alternatives. we are typically a little below what are cap is for participation. that is because we are pretty conservative. we have a lot of pushback from the legislature from time to time about wanting to expand because the statistics are so good and you can see the success of the program in so many ways
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that there is interest in expanding it. i think we have been pretty stringent and conservative in wanting to maintain the integrity of the program and really selecting families where it is in the best interest of the children and we can have those wraparound services. it is much sought after, but much more conservatively given out as an option. >> we have time for one more question. we have one over here. >> my question is for resources and actual implementation. you said the individuals selected for the program are not necessarily eligible for term of supervision. who provides that service when you talked about it checking in on a weekly basis? are you checking in with the probation office? it,d: when i think about
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the numbers of the people who get it -- there are only so many assigned probation officers that are limited to how many people they can supervise. a community placement officer would only have four or five people on their load of people because they have spent so much time with each person to make sure they are successful. >> he is absolutely right. one of the things we did in the alternative for the prison portion is by decreasing confinement, we were able to shift the funds into the community to paper supervision. and then work with our partners and others to contribute training and resources. there was no actual funding that had to come for the alternatives, it was just reinvestment. >> please join me in thanking our panel this morning. [applause]
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>> coming up, john kasich campaigns with arnold schwarzenegger in columbus. then, senator bernie sanders campaigns in dearborn. after that, hillary clinton campaigns in detroit. >> on the next "washington journal" the president of the feminist majority foundation on campaign 2016 and feminism. then, crystal right. journal" is live at 7:00 a.m. eastern. you can join the conversation with your calls and conversations on twitter. >> join us this thursday for coverage of the white house ,tate dinner for justin trudeau
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beginning at 6:15 p.m. eastern on c-span. johnson testifies today on the president's 2017 budget request. we will have live coverage of the senate homeland security at 10:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. as campaign 2016 continues, three primaries and one caucuses taking place with special focus on mississippi. join us for live coverage of the election results and viewer reaction. taking you on the road to the white house. >> john kasich held a campaign rally at the franklin park conservatory and botanical withns in columbus, ohio,
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former california governor arnold schwarzenegger. this event is 40 minutes.
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[applause] >> arnold. [cheering] [applause] >> oh my god. >> the governator. [cheering] [applause] >> good afternoon, after school all-stars saved my life. i grew up in a single-parent home, and watched my older brother struggle with getting activity after school hours. after my brother was shot, and you needed to choose a different
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path. all-stars was that path and it changed my life. i am now in my first year of college, and i'm very grateful for the organization that was founded by arnold schwarzenegger. [applause] >> it is my honor to introduce to you governor arnold schwarzenegger. [applause] gov. schwarzenegger: thank you very much. i am so proud of you. you chose the right path. [applause] it is the only way that our kids can choose the right path, to give them the opportunity. this is why we started after school programs nationwide more than 20 years ago, and i feel very passionate about that because he gives kids a chance
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to have adult supervision after school gets out. more than 70% of the kids come from homes where both of the parents are working, so there is no one there to tutor them to take them to sports and train them and help them with their homework. this is why afterschool programs are so important. you are in college from your studying business, and you're going to be a genius. we love you. let's give him a big hand. [applause] gov. schwarzenegger: i love ohio. [applause] i love ohio. it is such a wonderful statement . i remember in 1970, my love affair began here. but before that, i want to say briefly, and recognize that passing of nancy reagan today. she was one of the greatest
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first ladies, an extraordinary human being. such a wonderful partner to her husband, to president reagan, who was without doubt one of the greatest presidents of the history of the united states. [applause] and i know she would join him in heaven, and this love affair will start all over again. let's please have a moment of silence for nancy. thank you. let me talk to you about my love affair with ohio. in 1970, jim, right over here, come over here, it is very important that you see the person that is really
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responsible for my love affair. give him a big hand. [applause] he ran the world championships in weightlifting and bodybuilding in 1970, and i won that competition. and i told him that competition was so well run, that i would come back after i retired from bodybuilding, and he would be my partner, and we would be running the world championships in columbus, ohio. that is exactly what happened. from 1976, 44 decades we have been running every year the world championships and bodybuilding right here in columbus, ohio. [applause] i just came from there, because this weekend was the fitness festival. it has grown to the biggest event in the world. 200,000 people are going through
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there and watching those events. we have 56 different sports, and we have almost 20,000 athletes participating. the olympics have 12,000 athletes, and we have almost 20,000 athletes participating. this is the highest success when it comes to sports, fitness, and the promotion of health and fitness. this is what it is all about. the only way to connect on it is it iscould have done because of the great work and dedication, the passion of the people of ohio, and specifically of columbus. a big hand to all the people that work so hard to make this happen. [applause] now one day, my friend said to me you are coming for the classic, and for sports and fitness festival, i want you to meet a guy by the name of john
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kasich who was running for congress. this was back in the 1980's. i said i am coming. i came to the event, i listened to john kasich. and he was extraordinary, what he said. and from that point on, i was campaigning for him, and i was doing fundraisers for him, and let me tell you something -- when he went to washington, he kicked some serious butt. [laughter] he was in action hero when he went to washington. [applause] as the chairman of the house budget committee, he pushed through the first balanced budget. the first balance budget since a man walked on the moon. think about that. [applause] so he showed real action. then when he ran for governor, i
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said to him, i'll be back. [laughter] and he ran, and i was there again, and his fundraisers, and did events for him and everything. and then he became governor of the great state of ohio. and once again he was the action hero. he went in there, there was an $8 billion budget deficit. now there is a $2 million surplus. [applause] and not only that, you did this without raising taxes. he did the opposite. he reduced taxes by $5 billion. think about that. by $5 billion he reduced the taxes. [applause] and at the same time, he created more than 300,000 jobs. we always talk about those numbers, 300,000 -- the
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percentages and all of those things. it does not mean that much, but each person goes home, and says i can provide for my family. i have a job. i am somebody. it makes you feel good when you have a job, when you feel wanted, needed, that it is what it means for each person, each of those 300,000. you have done such an extraordinary job, and it means so much when those people go to work. this is the kind of action hero he is. he will be like that if he will be in washington, because right now we need leadership like that. there is so much work that needs to be done. [applause] i tell you, i am an immigrant, i came here in 1968 with absolutely nothing, but i was full of dreams. and because this is the land of opportunity, because of america, i could make all of my dreams become a reality. through hard work and dedication, i was successful in
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bodybuilding, in show business, i became governor of the state of california, i made a lot of money, all because of america. this is the land of opportunity, it is the greatest nation in the world, no matter what anyone says out there. [applause] and we need john kasich to now take charge and be at the white house. this is why i endorse john kasich, our great governor. [cheers] to be our republican nominee, and to be the next president of the united states of america, the greatest country in the world. ladies and gentlemen welcome a very good friend, governor john kasich. [applause]
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governor kasich: thank you. thank you everybody. well, let me just say to begin, that is the kasich express. it just keeps rolling. it just keeps rolling along. i want to say word about nancy reagan, because today my wife is going with me for a couple of days on the trail. i am thrilled that she is going to be with me. my staff is thrilled because they say she keeps me in line. i have a sense that was a little bit that way with nancy reagan and her husband, and she looked out for him every step of the way. and she made sure that the people who were -- [laughter] >> you have a little hair on you. governor kasich: she didn't do that. [laughter] she made sure the people who were around him, were committed to what he believed in. she was an incredible lady. she was very strong, and a total class act.
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she is now with her ronnie and with the lord, and it is great. god bless them, and god bless america for what ronald reagan and nancy reagan did for this country. [applause] i do not know how much you really know about arnold. you know about him as the terminator, you know him as a big actor. he will be on celebrity apprentice. he has taken the arnold classic global. they are on all of the continents now. it is amazing what he has been able to do. governor of california, a great
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businessman, all of that. but this young man who was here, i don't know if you heard what he was saying. he knew he needed to change his life, because he knew she did not change his life, he would probably lose his life. it was a number of years ago when arnold created the afterschool all-stars. this is a program that takes kids who could very easily join a gang, find themselves in drugs, totally isolated from everyone, without being able to realize their god-given potential. this afterschool all-stars is an incredible program, and it is growing. i went to california back when i was in television, and i went to where arnold was going to be a said haveshowed up, i you ever seen arnold here? they said he is here all the
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time. he is here with the kids, he gives 100% of himself. because of his commitment afterschool all-stars, and what they have done for children who need to find their way, we are now running one of the biggest afterschool all-star programs in any state outside of the state of california. it has been his leadership that inspired me to make sure that this program is funded, and has strong support. [applause] arnold came, he and i have been friends for a long time. he came here in 2010. governor of california, he flew all the way in, did a fundraiser, flew all the way back, had a terrible schedule, and said i want to help you. but when he came in after that long flight, i was whining to him about the negative campaigning that was going on in ohio. i said this is really not fair, this is not fun. he looked at me and some of the best advice i have ever received.
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he said john, love the beatings. love them. [laughter] and i have been loving them ever since. it's great. this is like moguls. eat up the moguls. then when i won, he gave me this jacket. i don't know if you can see it, but i officially am the governor terminator, too. overnator two. [laughter] when i talk about the kasich expressed that just keeps chugging along. back in 1977, when i was running, we had a newsletter called the kasich express. and it just keeps chugging along. i got into this race with my
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team, because you do not do anything without a team. because the country really needs help. the country really needs leadership. i think the reason why arnold and i are friends is because we both admire great leadership. we talked about ronald reagan. ronald reagan enabled people to play at a much higher level than they would normally play. when we think about great leaders like winston churchill, those people over there, every night they were bombed, every night they had rubble in the street, and he went on to say we we would never give in. these kinds of leaders allow us to reform and accomplish real things in our lifetime. when i think about ronald reagan i think about the resurgence of america.
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i think about that night when we all watched that berlin wall, and people who jumped on that wall with their little hammers, and i'm not sure what they were pounding, maybe they were pounding out their hopes, and their dreams, and their spite at those security guards that try ied to deny them their god-given potential. but leadership can bring about great things. do we have challenges and problems today? oh yes, we do. there is a lot of people who are worried that their jobs one day will not be there anymore. that's some crazy trade deal will hit them up the backside of their head, and someone will walk in and say you are out of work. you don't know what the future is. they put their money in
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anything, expecting to get interest in and over the last number of years, they got zero. they watched a lot of people who had wealth be able to buy into the stock market and do well when they were stuck. how about the mom and dad who have hopes and dreams for their daughters, but they are living in the basement after ringing up a huge college debt and have no sense of a future. the young people who believe they will see a ufo before a social security check. and those who wonder can we be safe and america? are we a leader of the world anymore? these are real issues.
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do you know how i understand them? i grew up in that town. i saw in the wind blew the wrong way, people were out of work. many of you have been with me for many years. i have never lost in my minds eye, i have never lost the sense that people sometime feel powerless, but they have no one to represent them, that feels that nobody stands out for them. that is what i have been dedicated to. creating economic security, opportunity, giving you a voice. people feel that no one is listening. i know that i can go to washington and pull this together. i know that i can go to washington -- [applause] look, i know how to balance budgets. i know how to build a team of
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people that are willing to get us on a strong fiscal track. why do we want that? because our job creators do not feel like they can trust the future and they will sit on their wallets. we will not get the jobs we want. i know how to deal with regulation where we have lost problem with people who work in the government. i just know if they want to make all the laws, they should run for public office, not just sit behind a desk where they don't deal with the reality of how we create jobs in this country. [applause] and we know how to cut taxes. we cut taxes more than any governor in america by $5 billion. you think about this. you remember that first year i was in. you all had a get a seat held because you fall out of your chair with everything that was happening. we have reduced taxes, and we killed the death tax. small business person could
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pass their business on to their kids so they could be successful. now we're working on killing death. we have not done well enough, but we are working at it. over 400,000 jobs, a balanced budget, same thing in ashington. the reason is i take orders from you. i will take orders from the people who are the connected, vested interest. i take it from you. and my wife, she knows it, and she has become a wonderful partner. the only one i take orders from his her. -- is her. let's make that clear. but she understands the stakes are. let me say a couple more things. i want to shift a lot of power back to where we live. i want us to have the programs to run our schools, our school boards, not some faraway place in washington. [applause] >> i want to send -- send
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welfare back here, so it is not a way of life, but a way of getting out of the ditch. [applause] and i want to send the programs of health care for the poor, because we know we can do a better job, if we were set ree. and send back job training, and send back transportation. so i'm going to send these programs all within the first 100 days. but i want to tell you something that i really believe, coming from that little town in ittsburgh. that little town, our hero was roberto clemente. he was the great athlete. he performed like we all dreamt that we could. i do not see my mother cry a lot, but i remember the morning she walked in my room in tears
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because she said roberto clemente had lost his life, flying to help people in nicaragua who had been hit by an earthquake. you see in that little town, we did not wait for any president to come galloping into our own. we do not wait for some politician to come in and solve our problems. the spirit of america, in my opinion, does not rest in politicians. we need to do our job to get things fixed where we are expected to do our job, what we are paid for. but the spirit of our country rest in you. it does not rest in a far away ity or a far away place. [applause] i was in mississippi, hurricane katrina came in and level the entire town, and nothing left.
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a couple of safes from the bank were left. they put all the cash in a winnebago, and the sound card tables, and people got cash they needed to survive. they wrote them an i.o.u. and passed out tens of millions of dollars of cash. and when all was said and done, and they lost about $300. when regulators showed up to look at the winnebago bank, they were told to get back in their cars and get out of here, because we know what we are doing. people across the country, standing up, fixing things. the last thing i want to tell you is this -- do you all understand that you are made special? do you know that the lord has
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never made anybody like you, and will never make anybody like you again. you see, young man, you have a purpose. part of your purpose was to be here today. did you ever think you would be doing something like that in front of governor schwarzenegger and all these people? no. but you are reaching out. and will have to discover our god-given purpose. i believe that when we work together, we are a great, beautiful mosaic. and we do not discover our purpose, the mosaic is incomplete. i think when we work together, we need to live a life bigger than ourselves to help heal this world. let me give you a couple of examples. you are a nurse, you are done at 10:00 p.m. tonight, you are dead tired. but you walk into the room or that family is sitting on the edge of their chairs, worried about their loved ones. you take a few more minutes to say, it is going to be ok.
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or if you are a teacher, and you gave up the salaries because you believe that you are changing the lives of young people, you found your purpose. and you are a physician, and you call the patient at 11:30 p.m. at night because you cannot sleep, you are living your purpose. and sometimes it is not even that complicated. how about the widow who was married for 52 years, and no one calls her anymore? and you call her on monday and say, myself and i are going to take you out to dinner on saturday. on thursday she goes and gets her hair done. and on saturday when you pick her up, she puts on the dress that she had not worn in six months. did you change the world? i think you did. you see, i will take care of these things in washington.
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if i need help, i will call you. i will call you. back here, we need to pull our communities together. we need to destroy the curse of drugs. we need to rebuild our schools, we need to fight poverty, and we need to connect with one another, because that is the spirit of america. that is where america lives in our neighborhoods, in our families, and our communities. [applause] so we're coming up to an election. they will have an election in michigan on tuesday. i told them -- we let them when yesterday in basketball. i'm covering everything. ok? we are going to do well. we are going to do well. and then we're coming here. we are coming here.
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[applause] i think it is important that in ohio, we not only send the message to the country, but we send the message to the world that positive efforts in politics and not name-calling, slimy, or make suggestions about how you are going to fix things set a positive message in raising the bar for our kids ill win. we will move america forward. thank you all very much, and god bless you all. thank you. [applause] ♪
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>> thanks for that fact. hold on.
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> thank you all.
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on the next "washington journal,eleanor smeal on feminism and crystal wright on race, politics and the campaign. "washington journal" is live every morning at 7:00 a.m. eastern. you can join the connection conversation with your calls, facebook and twitter. >> home security secretary jeh hohnson testifies today on the esident's 2017 d.a. budget request. we'll have live coverage at 10:00 a.m. eastern here on -span.
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as campaign 2016 continues three primaries and one caucus are taking place in several states today a special focus on michigan and mississippi. we'll have candidate's speeches and viewer reaction. taking you on the road to the white house on c-span radio and >> this year's c-span student cam competition ones of our biggest yet as students competed for over $100,000 the prizes. students produced do you meanries using our road to the white house theme. the students told us the economy, equality, education and immigration were the top issues. be sure to tune in this wednesday morning at 8:00 eastern during "washington journal wrts where they will announce winners. watch live on c-span and
5:21 am >> senator bernie sanders campaigned in dearborn, michigan ahead of tuesday's primary. minnesota congressman keith elson, the first muslim ever elected to congress introduced senator sanders. this is an hour and 10 minutes. --. >> let me hear you. my man bernie sanders is ready to talk to you guys. are you guys ready?
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michigan is still in the barnyard. that is right. coming up, just in a few hours from now, we need everybody here to show up, to bring your friends, to bring your relatives, to show the country, to show this whole nation that we are ready for real inclusion, economic justice for all, right here. let's start it right here. [applause] i want to tell you i am so proud to be born right here in the state of michigan. i lived here for the first 22 years of my life and then they dragged me to minnesota.
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you guys here got an extra congressman in me. as i served in the u.s. congress with my good friend bernie sanders, he has been there for the american worker, he has been there for the american family, he has never stopped fighting for us, which is why i'm so proud to support bernie sanders, everybody. [applause] i just want to let you know that everybody in this whole country is a part of this thing. when the anti-muslim hate was raging real ugly back in december -- you remember when trump was talking all that stuff? we had to explain to our kids that no, your neighbors don't hate you. your neighbors actually do like you, it's just that one weird guy over there. let me tell you what bernie sanders did. he said let's go to a mosque and sit down in the mosque in washington, d.c. and we will have a christian priest, a jewish rabbi and we will all sit down there and talk about how we are all part of this american family. let's do that.
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and you know what? that is exactly what we did. we denounced hate and talked about how this country is for all americans, no matter what your religion is, we are not going to let nobody divide us because you know what i mean? we need everybody. we are going to need everybody, everybody to restore real economic justice for all in america. the fact of the matter is the money has gone to the very tip top of this economy and a lot of super wealthy people have been struggling and the only way to overcome that is to get vast numbers of people just like here in good old dearborn to come together, to say we are not going to be divided, we are going to fight for prosperity for everyone in this country.
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it doesn't matter if you are mexican or muslim or jewish or christian or catholic or if you don't practice any religion, or maybe you are hindu or whatever you are, we are welcome. we say welcome to you. we see peace be unto you because we believe this is what we believe this nation is all about. bernie sanders, whether it is domestic policy or foreign policy, bernie is always for the people. i was so proud when bernie said we don't need to invade iraq. he voted no on invading iraq. he was smart enough he was not the secretary of state or nothing, but he is still smart
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enough, he was smart enough to know a country that had been under a no-fly zone for 12 years and for two thirds of its landmass was not about to attack the united states. when george bush said let's attack iraq, he's that i'm not going to do that. he said no on that and we need that kind of judgment in the white house. what do you think? bernie sanders, when they said, when obama said we are going to try to work out a deal with the iranians to make sure we don't have any wars or spread nuclear weapons. bernie said i'm for that and i backed that 100%. you remember that? his instincts are for peace in this world and dignity for all human beings, no matter where they live. domestically, right here in the good old united states, right here in flint, bernie has been against these bad trade deals that hit michigan so hard.
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when i was working for a city councilman in the city of detroit and every day we would see 100 laid-off year, 100 laid off there, all these companies laying off workers here in opening plants all over the world as american's right here in michigan were losing their jobs, bernie has been against nafta, he was against the peruvian trade agreement because he knows we need fair trade, not just free trade, everybody. [applause] he knows if you tell a big company, you could reduce sure labor costs by supporting someone abroad. we have to set the rules up to put american workers in a position where they can make a good, honest living. we don't open the doors for the lowest wage in this world. i think bernie is someone we can trust in this area.
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i want you to know i'm the chair of something called the progressive caucus in the u.s. congress. let me tell you about the progressive caucus. the progressive caucus was started by bernie sanders. long before i ever became chair, bernie sanders was there organizing people, bringing us together. it doesn't just mean standing for the right thing because bernie stands for the right thing but it means getting the win together in the right way, involving the grass roots movement, that masses of americans, young people, old people, people in the sandwich generation, masses of americans coming out and that
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is how bernie does business. there was a contractor doing business with the federal government, they were doing food service and janitorial service and different kinds of services like that. they said we can't survive on $7.25 an hour no more. so what they did was they came out and demanded to be paid more money. we stood with those workers hand to hand, shoulder to shoulder. the lead person out there was bernie sanders. [applause] the person standing with the workers, standing with the cooks, standing with janitors, standing with security guards that was bernie sanders. bernie was the one who was not afraid to come out of that ivory tower, that capitol building and stand with the people who were struggling hard to make ends meet. bernie not only stands for people fighting for a better wage but for the young people of the united states.
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for sure, bernie believes in debt free college, but it shocks me when bernie says he wants tuition free college, they say it is not possible. just like they've got in france, germany, denmark -- who believes that we can get that if we fight for it? we can win it if we fight for it. it's going to require all of us in this room to stand up and fight and stand with bernie sanders as he makes his demand. you tell them we don't ever give up on our dreams. we don't give up on our dreams. in this country of ours some of
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-- there was a time in our nation's history when it if somebody was black to sit on the front of the bus -- some of you may have just read about it, some people said it was unrealistic but there were dreamers out there who believe in the best of america but stood for it and fought for it. there was a time in this nation's history when for a woman to cast a vote was considered ridiculous and unrealistic. it had to be people like susan b anthony and others that demanded if women are equal in god's eyes, they've got to be equal at the ballot box and guess what, they won it because they fought for it. what i am saying to you is don't let anybody tell you we cannot have free tuition and our nations universities, that we cannot have that free college.
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we cannot have peaceful foreign policy in our nation. it is in the grasp of all of us if we only stand together and believe in it and we need a candidate who's going to be the standardbearer demanding we when these things. do you think that is my man bernie sanders? [applause] that is bernie sanders. you know you can trust bernie sanders because in the 1960's in this country, bernie sanders can be found fighting for his country, even get arrested doing it. most politicians don't put that on their resume. he was a man to risk arrest because he believed in what they were fighting for. he knew it wasn't the reality of 1961 but it could be the reality of 2016. if there were some proud people
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who weren't going to tell people just be realistic. this is a patriotic campaign. we if we -- if we fight for what is right, we blew them out in maine. did you see what happened there. we blew them out in kansas as well. i'll bring you good news from minnesota where we beat them something. we blew them out. that same victory is right in our grasp. right here in michigan. [applause] that same win is in our hands if we only reach for it and grab it. when you campaign with bernie, you see the people, the energy and the fire is on his side. you can see it, you can feel it. but there's a whole lot of other folks who got other plans and
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maybe they are not at rallies. what does that mean? that means you and i have to go out and get our friends, get our neighbors, we got 24 hours to do it. we've got 24 hours to grab your neighbors, your coworkers -- you've got 24 hours and there's a whole lot of people here in the state of michigan who won't make a decision until they get to the ballot box. did you know bernie stood for $15 an hour minimum wage. if you tell him, bernie actually believes we can fight climate change and win and has been standing against keystone since before other people got around to it. you know what i'm saying? if you will get in there here if
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you will knock on those doors, we can win this thing. the real thing is will, will to win. who has the will to win? [applause] because i'm telling you now, i got on the flight early this morning to come back to my hometown because i was sure the people of dearborn, the people of flint, the people of detroit, all over the great state of michigan are ready for some real change and we are not going to lower our sights. we know it has already begun and that is why i am so proud to introduce to you my friend and yours, bernie sanders. come on out. [applause]
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♪ sen. sanders: let me begin by thanking mr. gilroy for his remarks but this is what i want to say about the guy. this guy is one of the great members of the united states congress. [applause] he has spent his political life taking on special interests, fighting for a peaceful world, fighting for economic justice, racial justice, environmental justice. thank you so much for what you are doing. [applause] i want to tell you something
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else, about keith and how the real political world works. throughout this campaign, we have taken on the financial establishment and all of the big money and all of the big-money interests, we have taken on the political establishment. in minnesota, they didn't mention this but we took on the two united states senators who supported secretary clinton. we took on the governor who supported secretary clinton and we took on almost everybody in the legislature who supported secretary clinton. we had keith ellison on our side and we won by a landslide. [applause] keith basically told you everything i was going to tell you so i am going home. [laughter] nah, here is the point. keith made the most important
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point that i commit to you. it's that real change never takes place from the top on down. it always takes place from the bottom on up. [applause] and if you think back historically at the struggle for workers rights, you remember that workers came together, some of them were beaten, some are jailed, some were killed but they said workers are entitled to collective bargaining and entitled to negotiate a contract. we will form a union. it took place from the bottom right on up. [applause] as keith indicated, you remember, we often forget that
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in 1924, in 1924 is when women got the right to vote. it's less than 100 years ago. how did that happen? did it happen because some president signed something? it happened because women and their male allies struggled for decade after decade, some died, somewhat to jail, some went on hunger strikes and they said, in america, women will not be treated as second-class citizens. [applause] civil rights movement -- it has been going on for hundreds of years. african americans before slavery and their white allies said in the united states of america, racism and bigotry and segregation are not acceptable. and hundreds of thousands and millions of people stood up and fought back.
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we still have a long way to go but that's how change takes place. [applause] when people tell you we can't do this or that, all they are saying is that they don't have the guts to take on the powerful special interests who are preventing that change from occurring. we do have the courage. [applause] before i go any further, i just had the honor of meeting with a number of arab-american leaders here in dearborn. what i want to say is that if there is anything we are going to accomplish together, we are going to end bigotry in this
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country once and for all. [applause] the donald trumps and his friends are not going to prevail in scapegoating minorities in this country. [applause] they are not going to be successful in attacking and denigrating our muslim friends and neighbors. [applause] or our mexican friends and neighbors. [applause] they are not going to divide us
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what we all know and i speak as somebody who has personal experience in this -- my dad was an immigrant. my dad came to this country without a penny in his pocket and could not speak english from poland at the age of 17. he never made much money. but he loved this country because of the opportunities it gave him and the ability to raise two of his kids, the first in his family to go to college. that's what america is about. we will not let trump divide us up, we will come together and create the america that we know we can do. [applause] what this campaign is about is about doing something very, very radical in american politics.
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it is called telling the truth. [applause] and the truth is not always pleasant. i wish i could tell you wonderful things but it is important to understand reality because if we do not understand that reality, it is in fact impossible for us to go forward. [applause] let me tell you about reality. reality number 1 -- no president of the united states, not bernie sanders or anybody else can do what has to be done to deal with enormous problems facing the middle class and working families of this country. no president can do it alone. [applause] that is not just rhetoric. that is not just words. that is reality. you know why that is true?
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no other candidate for president will tell you this -- the people who have the power in this country, the billionaire class, wall street, corporate america, the corporate media who determine what we see and what we hear, the large campaign contributors who have so much influence over the political process -- no one can defeat this group of people because they have so much power alone. no president can do it. the only way we defeat them and create an america that works for us all rather than the few is when millions of people stand up, fight back, and demand to have a government which represents all of us, not just the 1%.
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[applause] i will tell you a story which is very gratifying. this is what i've been trying to do from day one in this campaign is to bring working people, young people, bring people who have given up on the political process back into that process so they can stand up and fight for their kids and their own lives. yesterday, i saw something that was enormously touching to me. it was a caucus in maine. there were photographs on the internet of a line half a mile long. half mile long of people waiting hours to get into cast their vote. we won maine with 64% of the vote. [applause]
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in the largest voter turnout in the history of maine caucuses -- we had similar results in kansas. in other words, this is what is happening -- if we allow the same old same old to continue, you will get the same old, same old result. those same old, same old results will be the rich get richer, the middle class continues to disappear, and too many of our people live in poverty. if we want to change that same old, same old, we have to understand that politics is not a football game. football is a spectator sport. we watch great athletes do their thing.
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politics and democracy means that every single one of us has to be actively involved in determining the future of america. [applause] tomorrow is a very important day here in michigan. it is your primary. if there is a large voter turnout, we will win. [applause] as keith said, bring your family members, bring your coworkers, bring your neighbors. let's show the establishment that we are not satisfied with the status quo, we want real change. [applause] obviously, my opponent on the ballot will be secretary clinton.
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let me just speak for a moment about some of the differences that exist between secretary clinton and myself. number one, in this country today, we have a corrupt campaign finance system. [applause] as a result of citizens united, what we have seen is the emergence of a whole lot of super pacs into which billionaires, the wall street corporate america are putting huge amounts of money. secretary clinton has several super pacs. the largest recently reported that in the last filing period, she raised $25 million including $15 million from wall street. [boos] secretary clinton has also gone behind closed doors with some of
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the major wall street financial institutions. she gets paid $225,000 per speech. not bad for a days work. i kind of figure that if you're going to get paid $225,000 to give a speech, it must be a brilliant speech. if it is such a brilliant speech, surely, you want to share that brilliant speech with the people of america. [applause] we have chosen -- secretary clinton also said she would release the transcripts. here it is, i'm ready to release my transcripts, are you ready? here it is, you got it. nothing there. no speeches to wall street. [applause]
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we, on the other hand, have taken a different approach in how we raise funds. and how we do it is to go to working families and middle-class people. what has happened over the last 10 months has been absolutely amazing and mind blowing. we now have received 5 million individual campaign contributions. [applause] that is more individual campaign contributions than any candidate in the history of the united states of america. [applause] anybody here know what the average campaign contribution is? i love that. i love that. $27.
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to quote abraham lincoln at gettysburg, this is a campaign of the people, by the people, and for the people. [applause] now, there is another issue that separates secretary clinton from myself. that is all of you are aware that in america today, our middle class is shrinking. almost all new income and wealth go to the top 1%. you are aware that many of the new jobs being created pay wages that are just too low. there are a lot of factors for that but one of the major reasons is that, for the last 30 years, we have had a series of disastrous trade policies written by corporate america. these trade policies whether
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it's nafta or cafta or trade relations with china or others, the basic principle was the following: corporate america helped write these trade agreements and they say why should i pay a worker in michigan or vermont a decent wage with decent benefits, negotiate with the union, and have to obey environmental legislation when i could go to mexico or china and pay people pennies an hour? that is what they wanted. that is what they have accomplished because of these disastrous trade agreements. in this country, in the last 15 years, we have seen the loss of 60,000 factories in america. 60,000 factories and millions of decent paying jobs.
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while not all of that is attributable to trade, a lot of it is. all of you know factories and communities all over this country shut down, workers were thrown out on the street, factory went to mexico or to china or some other low-wage country. hillary clinton has supported virtually every one of these disastrous trade policies. [boos] i have opposed every one of these disastrous policies. [applause] last night, there was a debate and in order to kind of hide her positions on trade, secretary clinton announced that i was an
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opponent of the bailout of the automobile industry which is so important here in michigan and many other states. that is absolutely untrue. there was one vote in terms of whether or not we bailed out the automobile industry in the senate. it was december 11, 2008. i voted for that bailout in support of the workers in the automobile industry. [applause] to say otherwise is to not say the truth. there is another area of huge consequence between difference of opinion between secretary clinton and myself and that has to do with foreign policy. in 2002, the congress debated the most important foreign policy issue in the modern
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history of this country. i listened very carefully to president bush and vice president cheney had to say. about going to war in iraq. i not only voted against that war, i helped lead the opposition to going to war in iraq. [applause] it gives me no pleasure to tell you that much of what i feared would happen is exactly what did happen in terms of the chaos and instability in that region which has led us to where we are today. secretary clinton heard the same evidence that i heard. she voted for that disastrous war. [boos]
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you know, it is very easy when you were a politician to point out what is true. is there a lot of terrible day dictators and demagogues all over this world? qaddafi of libya is certainly one of them. it's not enough to say he is a tyrant and dictator. before you overthrow him, you have to think about what happens the day after he is gone. regime change does not always work out quite as smoothly as some people think it does. [applause] a series of articles in the new york times recently made a point that the president was not sure what to do about libya. secretary clinton was one of the more aggressive people to say we've got to go in and overthrow
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qaddafi. there is massive instability in libya and isis has a foothold in that country today. the point being that regime change is more complicated and often has unintended consequences. we've got to be careful about that. [applause] on foreign policy, there is another issue and i wish i could come before you and tell you that i have a magical solution, i don't. that is for decades now, there has been hatred and warfare in the middle east. everybody knows we have had some presidents like carter and clinton and others who have tried to do their best to resolve it. all i can tell you is i will make every single effort to bring rational people on both
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sides together so that hopefully, we can have, through a level playing field, the united states treating everybody in that region equally, hopefully. [applause] i know that there are people of goodwill in israel and the arab communities, this is not an easy task. but it is a task that we must pursue. we cannot continue to have, for another 60 years, the kind of hatred and conflict that exist in the middle east. [applause] this campaign is doing as well as it is winning caucus after caucus because we are listening to the american people rather
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than just wealthy campaign contributors. we are listening to workers who tell us they cannot make it on $9-$10 per hour. that's not enough money for one person let alone to raise a family. that is why, when we think big and when we determine that in america, no worker working 40 hours per week should live in poverty, we know that we have to raise the minimum wage to a living wage, $15 per hour. [applause] this campaign is listening to senior citizens and disabled veterans. a great nation is judged not by how many millionaires and
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has, but by how it treats the weakest and most vulnerable amongst us. that's what a great nation is about. [applause] there are millions of seniors and disabled veterans in this country who are trying to get by on $12,000 per year social security. you know what? nobody can get by on $11,000 or $12,000 a year on social security. unbelievably, there are republicans out there who actually want to cut social security. i've got some very bad news for them. not only are we not going to cut social security, we are going to expand social security benefits. [applause] this campaign is listening to


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